SuSMo – Shared Mobility Transition Guidance Tools

With the goal of decarbonising their transport, many cities in Europe have introduced or are planning to introduce zero-emission shared mobility services. These new shared mobility services often act as disruptors of the status quo and require a systemic change to the interaction between city transport planners, mobility operators and citizens. European city authorities seek new and innovative ways of integrating these shared services with existing public transport modes, payment, route planning and booking systems.

The SuSMo project (Sustainable Urban Shared Mobility) works with city partners from Stockholm, Bologna and Sofia and zero emission mobility experts to develop learning materials that can change the way we implement shared mobility systems across Europe. The learning materials consist of guidelines and tools for successful implementation, monitoring and evaluation of shared mobility, as well as case studies from the SuSMo partner cities capturing their experiences and lessons learned.

The SuSMo guidelines and tools

The project team has defined and studied four themes essential in establishing sustainable shared mobility. The research outcomes are presented in the below reports that aim to serve as learning material for city authorities that want to introduce, monitor, and/or evaluate shared mobility.


  1. Policy, regulation and procurement: What steps does a city need to take to introduce sustainable shared mobility?
  2. Private sector engagement: Designing a shared mobility scheme that works for all. What are the key factors for successful public-private partnerships in introducing shared mobility?
  3. Behavioural change: How does the behaviour of stakeholders influence the introduction of shared mobility and what needs to change for successful implementation?
  4. Impact evaluation: How to estimate the impact of shared mobility in a city on CO2 emissions using a software model?

SuSMo Case Studies

The project team worked together with the SUSMO partner cities, Bologna, Sofia and Stockholm, capturing their experiences from introducing different shared mobility modes and schemes. Lessons learned for these case studies can be found in the summarized reports.

Stockholm – Car Sharing in housing development

The introduction of special parking permits in Stockholm led to the introduction of shared car schemes. This study provides valuable recommendations for introduction of these schemes, focussing on behavioural change, policy, regulation, procurement and private sector engagement.

Technology and policy roadmaps inform cities of upcoming technology developments, and the likely policy and strategy decisions cities need to take in order to accelerate the low carbon shared mobility agenda. In this study these roadmaps are used to identify the strengths and weaknesses in the SUMP (Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan) of Sofia.

An innovative public-private partnership in Sofia led to the introduction of mobility hubs. This document shows how this came to be and how it impacted Sofia.

The city of Bologna introduced a shared bike service in 2018. For the procurement of this service they used a tendering process called competitive dialogue. This document shows how this was done, and provides a framework for establishing bike-sharing schemes using competitive dialogue.

Project partners:

Cenex Nederland (Coordinator), AESS, Cleantech Bulgaria, Trivector

Previous collaborators/contributors:

Cenex, TU Delft, CKIC-project MOTION